Tuesday, 6 March 2018

Strålingen fra verdensrommet øker




Strålingen fra verdensrommet øker



SUPERNOVA: Stålingen kommer blant annet fra supernovaer som denne. Foto: ESO / AFP

Ronald Toppe

7 timer siden (Oppdatert: 7 timer siden)


Astronomene har aldri tidligere målt sterkere kosmisk stråling. Det kan få store konsekvenser.

Jorden bombarderes hele tiden av partikler fra verdensrommet.


De fleste av dem, er det som blir igjen når elektronene er borte fra et hydrogen eller helium-atom. Partiklene treffer oss med enorm fart, like oppunder lysets hastighet.

Partiklene blåses ut fra nøytronstjerner, supernovaer og sorte hull, og har altså reist langt før de kommer inn mot solsystemet.

Også solen sender ut ladde partikler, «solvind», det er den som gir oss nordlys. Men partiklene fra solen har lavere fart enn de partiklene forskerne nå skremmes av.  Kan være dødelig


For fire år siden slo professor Nathan Schwadron ved University of New Hampshire alarm. Data fra NASAs Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter viste at nivået av kosmisk stråling var høyere enn noen gang i romfartens historie.


Det er Spaceweather som kommer med nyheten.


Kosmisk stråling er farlig. Partiklene er veldig ustabile, og påvirker cellene i kroppen vår. Store strålingsdoser er dødelige, mindre doser kan skade organer, føre til kreft, og endre arvestoffet vårt.


Schwadron og kollegene har beregnet at en mannlig astronaut kunne oppholde seg i rommet i 1000 dager i 1990 før han nådde den anbefalte maksimale strålingsdosen.


I 2014 var perioden redusert til 700 dager.


– Det er en stor endring, sier Schwadron til Spaceweather.


Under ser du Shwadrons illustrasjon av utviklingen.

ANTALL DAGER er romfarer kan være oppe i rommet, avhengig av aluminiumstykkelsen på veggene i romfartøyet, og solsyklusen

Kilde: Spaceweather.com
Skjermingen svekkes


Kloden vår er skjermet for det meste av den kosmiske strålingen.


Magnetfeltet rundt Solen styrer mye av strålingen bort. Jordens eget magnetfelt skjermer også, og mange av partiklene ødelegges når de treffer atmosfæren vår.


Kollisjonen med molekylene i luften rundt oss gjør at det dannes nye partikler, som så brytes ned til andre partikler, røntgenstråler og lys.


PARTIKLENE brytes ned til nye partikler når de treffer atmosfæren. Illustrasjon: NASA


Astronauter er mest utsatt for kosmisk stråling, men vi får også i oss doser av den når vi flyr.


Årsaken til den økte strålingen er at Solen ikke beskytter oss like godt lenger.


Aktiviteten til Solen går i bølger på elleve år. Når den er på topp, er solskiven full av solflekker. De er utbruddene i dem sammen med magnetfeltet til Solen som tar hånd om partiklene, det er grunnen til at kuvene i figuren over svinger.
Har økt ytterligere


Nå nærmer vi oss minimum i solsyklusen. Solen er helt glatt, og "stillere" enn den har vært på lenge.

SOLEN akkurat nå

Bilde: SDO


– De siste ti årene har solvinden hatt lav tetthet av partikler og magnetfeltet har vært svakt. Resultatet av den bemerkelsesverdige lave solaktiviteten er at den kosmiske strålingen øker, forklarer Schwadron.


Da han og kollegene oppdaget økningen for fire år siden, anslo de at mengden stråling ville øke med 20 prosent i forhold til forrige solsyklus.


Nå må forskerne øke anslaget med ti prosent.

Flere skyer?


Den økte strålingen får størst umiddelbare konsekvenser for romfarten, men også risikoen for flymannskap øker.


Den totale strålingsdosen begrenser hvor mye piloter og kabinpersonell kan jobbe i løpet av et år. I Europa er grensen 6 mSv per år.


Kosmisk stråling kan også påvirke været. Når strålingen treffer luften dannes det ørsmå partkler som vanndamp kondenserer på, slik at det dannes skyer.

Wednesday, 21 February 2018

AI ripe for exploitation, experts warn

AI ripe for exploitation, experts warn

  • 21 February 2018
  •  

A robot pointingImage copyrightGETTY IMAGES
Image captionThe threat of AI is real and many of the technologies are already developed, warn 26 leading experts

Drones turned into missiles, fake videos manipulating public opinion and automated hacking are just three of the threats from artificial intelligence in the wrong hands, experts have said.
The Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence report warns that AI is ripe for exploitation by rogue states, criminals and terrorists.
Those designing AI systems need to do more to mitigate possible misuses of their technology, the authors said.
And governments must consider new laws.
The report calls for:
  • Policy-makers and technical researchers to work together to understand and prepare for the malicious use of AI
  • A realisation that, while AI has many positive applications, it is a dual-use technology and AI researchers and engineers should be mindful of and proactive about the potential for its misuse
  • Best practices that can and should be learned from disciplines with a long history of handling dual-use risks, such as computer security
  • An active expansion of the range of stakeholders engaging with, preventing and mitigating the risks of malicious use of AI
Speaking to the BBC, Shahar Avin, from Cambridge University's Centre for the Study of Existential Risk, explained that the report concentrated on areas of AI that were available now or likely to be available within five years, rather than looking to the distant future.

'Game changer'

Particularly worrying is the new area of reinforcement learning where AIs are trained to superhuman levels of intelligence without human examples or guidance.
He outlined some of the scenarios where AI could turn "rogue" in the near future:
  • Technologies such as AlphaGo - an AI developed by Google's DeepMind and able to outwit human Go players - could be used by hackers to find patterns in data and new exploits in code
  • A malicious individual could buy a drone and train it with facial recognition software to target a certain individual
  • Bots could be automated or "fake" lifelike videos for political manipulation
  • Hackers could use speech synthesis to impersonate targets
Miles Brundage, research fellow at Oxford University's Future of Humanity Institute, said: "AI will alter the landscape of risk for citizens, organisations and states - whether it's criminals training machines to hack or 'phish' at human levels of performance or privacy-eliminating surveillance, profiling and repression - the full range of impacts on security is vast.
"It is often the case that AI systems don't merely reach human levels of performance but significantly surpass it.
"It is troubling, but necessary, to consider the implications of superhuman hacking, surveillance, persuasion, and physical target identification, as well as AI capabilities that are subhuman but nevertheless much more scalable than human labour."
Dr Seán Ó hÉigeartaigh, executive director of the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk and one of the co-authors, added: "Artificial intelligence is a game changer and this report has imagined what the world could look like in the next five to 10 years.
"We live in a world that could become fraught with day-to-day hazards from the misuse of AI and we need to take ownership of the problems - because the risks are real.
"There are choices that we need to make now, and our report is a call to action for governments, institutions and individuals across the globe.
"For many decades hype outstripped fact in terms of AI and machine learning. No longer. This report looks at the practices that just don't work anymore - and suggests broad approaches that might help: for example, how to design software and hardware to make it less hackable - and what type of laws and international regulations might work in tandem with this."
The 100-page report identified three areas - digital, physical and political - in which the malicious use of AI is most likely to be exploited.
Contributors included OpenAI, a non-profit research firm, digital rights group The Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Center for a New American Security, a national security think-tank.

Saturday, 30 December 2017

Elon Musk, founder, CEO and lead designer at SpaceX and co-founder of Tesla, speaks at the International Space Station Research and Development Conference in Washington, U.S., July 19, 2017















Elon Musk, founder, CEO and lead designer at SpaceX and co-founder of Tesla, speaks at the International Space Station Research and Development Conference in Washington, U.S., Jul 19, 2017 / REUTERS/Aaron P. Bernstein






'Should that be controlled by a few people at Google with no oversight?'


AATIF SULEYMAN
Friday 24 November 2017 19:01 GMT


THE INDEPENDENT TECH
Elon Musk believes it’s highly likely that artificial intelligence (AI) will be a threat to people.

The Tesla founder is concerned that a handful of major companies will end up in control of AI systems with “extreme” levels of power.

In Mr Musk’s opinion, there’s a very small chance that humans will be safe from such systems. 

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Elon Musk believes it’s highly likely that artificial intelligence (AI) will be a threat to people.

ELON MUSK’S BILLION-DOLLAR CRUSADE TO STOP THE A.I. APOCALYPSE

Elon Musk says we're only 2 years from being able to nap in self-driving cars.

“Maybe there's a five to 10 percent chance of success [of making AI safe],” he told Neuralink staff after showing them a documentary on AI, reports Rolling Stone.

He also told them that he invested in DeepMind in order to keep an eye on Google’s development of AI.

Mr Musk has called for the companies working on AI to slow down to ensure they don’t unintentionally build something unsafe.

“Between Facebook, Google and Amazon – and arguably Apple, but they seem to care about privacy – they have more information about you than you can remember,” he told Rolling Stone. 

“There's a lot of risk in the concentration of power. So if AGI [artificial general intelligence] represents an extreme level of power, should that be controlled by a few people at Google with no oversight?”

Though he didn't expand on what sort of threat it could pose, he's previously said that AI is “a fundamental risk” to the existence of human civilisation.

Stephen Hawking warns AI 'may replace humans altogether'
He believes its development needs to be regulated “proactively”.

“I have exposure to the most cutting-edge AI and I think people should be really concerned about it,” he said in July.

“I keep sounding the alarm bell but until people see robots going down the street killing people, they don’t know how to react because it seems so ethereal." 




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Commentary:
The Internet has recently been released from Governmental control and now runs as a private entity.

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HUMAN SYNTHESIS

Saturday, 9 December 2017

DARPA - Project Pegasus




the time travel and teleportation experiments of project pegasus

Posted by  on February 13, 2014
Project Pegasus - Did Andrew Basiago really travel through time and teleport to Mars?

I’ve often mentioned Project Pegasus, but we’ve never really talked about it, you know? So sit back, relax, mix yourself a cool Pan Galactic Gargle Blaster. Or don’t, because reading this will probably give you the same effect.*
In 2004, Washington-based attorney Andrew D. Basiago began telling his story of a top-secret organization called Project Pegasus. Although he was only seven years old at the time, Basiago claims he had, from 1968 to 1972, participated in a number of bizarre experiments that took him on journeys through time, space, and potentially into parallel universes.
“Project Pegasus was the classified, defense-related research and development program under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in which the US defense-technical community achieved time travel on behalf of the US government – the real Philadelphia Experiment.” – Project Pegasus Mission Statement
The mission of Project Pegasus was to study the effects of time travel and teleportation on children, as well as to relay important information about past and future events “to the US President, intelligence community, and military.” According to Basiago, children were recruited specifically for their ability to adapt “to the strains of moving between past, present and future.”
But how?
While Basiago claims there were several time travel devices at work during these experiments, the majority of his temporal adventures can be attributed to our old friend Nikola Tesla.
Documents, allegedly retrieved from Tesla’s New York City apartment after his death in January 1943, revealed the schematic for a teleportation machine. Using something Basiago calls “radiant energy,” the machine would form a “shimmering curtain” between two elliptical booms.
“Radiant energy is a form of energy that Tesla discovered that is latent and pervasive in the universe and has among its properties the capacity to bend time-space.” – Andrew Basiago
Passing through this curtain of energy, Basiago would enter a “vortal tunnel” that would send him to his destination. The other teleportation devices included a “plasma confinement chamber” in New Jersey and a “jump room” in El Segundo, California. There was also some kind of “holographic technology,” which allowed them to travel “both physically and virtually.”
They weren’t always safe, though. According to the Huffington Post, one of Basiago’s cohorts, Alfred Webre, recalls one instance in which a child returned from his temporal voyage before his legs. As he puts it, “He was writhing in pain with just stumps where his legs had been.” These bugs, according Webre, have been ironed out in the 40 or so years since the experiments began.

Through Time And Space



Andrew Basiago claims to be the young boy in oversized shoes in this photo taken during the Gettysburg Address
Image: Andrew D. Basiago

So where did Basiago travel during these experiments?
Several of his voyages led him to the 1800s. On one occasion, he found himself at Gettysburg on November 19, 1863, the day President Abraham Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg address.
As Basiago tells the story, he had been dressed up as a “Union bugle boy.” However, he felt that his over-sized shoes were drawing too much attention, so he wandered away from the crowd, only to be photographed (as you can see in the alleged photo up there).
Basiago also traveled to the Ford Theatre on the evening President Lincoln was assassinated. In fact, he did so multiple times, even running into himself twice, though he never actually witnessed the assassination.
Each trip, he says, was slightly different than the last, leading Basiago to believe that it wasn’t just time travel at work; he was being sent into “slightly different alternative realities on adjacent timelines.”
Finally, let’s not forget Basiago’s trips to Mars. In the 1980s, he utilized the aforementioned “jump room” to teleport to the Red Planet, with the express mission of acting as an ambassador to the Martian civilization. His fellow travelers? William Stillings and Barry Soetero, who these days goes by the name President Barack Obama.

The “Planetary Impact” of Project Pegasus

Today, the “new” Project Pegasus, led by Andrew D. Basiago himself, is apparently campaigning for the United States government to publicly disclose its teleportation technology, which would benefit humanity as a whole and make transportation both on Earth and throughout the cosmos instantaneous and environment-friendly. Or something like that.
At any rate, Basiago’s story is far from over. While the Web Bot’s prediction in 2009 that he would “make a [planetary impact]” as a government whistle blower never really came to pass (more on that later), he’s got some new plans. Namely, he intends to run for President of the United States in 2016.
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**[WHO and WHAT is behind it all ? : >](http://peopledemocracy.weebly.com/)**

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**Commentary:**



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**HUMAN SYNTHESIS**
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Thursday, 31 August 2017

How Infrastructure Will Benefit From the Internet of Things



























How Infrastructure Will Benefit From the Internet of 
Things

Aug 14, 2017 - 9:53 AM


In recent years, the world has grown to recognize the value of leveraging the Internet of 
Things to offer unprecedented visibility into the industrial value chain. Through 
connectivity and big data analytics, the Internet of Things has the potential to deliver unprecedented improvements in operational efficiencies, asset health maintenance, 
reliability and customer satisfaction for industrial users, utilities and end-consumers.

With these new capabilities, what could the IoT mean for U.S. infrastructure, from the
 vast electrical grid to the trains and buildings that rely on it for power?

It is estimated that the country loses approximately $150 billion annually due to 
power outages and surges, meaning that even a modest improvement would yield huge 
financial benefits — not to mention added comfort and security for the citizens who 
on the grid. But to get to that point, it will take industry-wide investments at the device, 
communication, storage, analytics and application levels.

Toward a Smarter, More Resilient and Reliable Grid

The IoT can be integral in providing reliable, efficient and sustainable power to 
consumers, and MindSphere, Siemens’ open, cloud-based operating system for the IoT 
will serve as the bridge between the data coming from millions of connected devices 
and those tasked with turning it into insight.

“What we see across the energy space with MindSphere very much leverages what 
doing at the industrial level,” says Michael Carlson, President of Smart Grid North 
America for Siemens, who sees digitalization as the key to grid resiliency and 
“It is going to give us the ability to connect devices to create an analytics capability 
that, in turn, can communicate specific actions back to those devices.”

Will also control the human mind.

The devices in question can be anything that sits on the energy value chain — ranging 
from grid devices all the way to consumer devices. Thanks to the IoT, these “smart” will 
be able to produce a constant flow of data that, per Carlson, offers a window into “how, 
when, where and how effectively energy is being consumed.”

At a minimum, devices outfitted with sensors can provide a one-way status up to the
MindSphere environment. But as devices get smarter, says Carlson, “they can start to 
take downstream communication back from MindSphere, or from other devices that 
can be connected inter-operable from a data and control perspective.”

Because of the situational awareness it provides, this feedback loop encourages a 
proactive approach to grid management: Utilities can take a more proactive approach 
when responding to outages, and consumers will be able to exert more control over their 
energy use.

From the power generation perspective, analytics will only become more crucial as 
distributed — and more intermittent — energy sources like photovoltaics are 
increasingly incorporated into the grid. With the right IoT-enabled tools, these systems
 will grow more robust in the face of short-term sags in voltage on cloudy days, or an 
an influx of power on sunny ones.

“With more distributed energy coming online, the need for better visibility and control 
across the whole energy value chain becomes more important,” says Carlson. “Consumers 
are now producing power and becoming two-way prosumers, and when they don’t 
need that power they want to do something with it.”

The inputs created by this multi-flow system make the grid more complex, but 
MindSphere can handle that complexity, particularly as companies build a layer of
business applications on top of it. All companies are welcome to contribute to this 
open ecosystem, but the work has already begun at Siemens, which has leveraged
 its domain and machine knowledge to create the EnergyIP suite of applications, 
a scalable meter data management platform that boasts the most mass-market 
deployments in the industry.

For grid operators and consumers alike, the result will be previously unimaginable 
visibility and control into the energy value chain, turning them from passive receivers 
of monthly bills into active participants in energy markets. For utilities, a complicated 
operation of millions of data-gathering sensors becomes more streamlined. Armed with 
this information, they can offer improved reliability and more value-added services to 
their customers.

The truly smart grid may not be here yet, but data will simplify the transition to the 
digital grid of the future. “We’re taking a lesson from the internet. If you look at it as an 
industry, it’s never been finished, and nobody is projecting a date when it will be,” 
Carlson explains. “That’s our strategy with MindSphere. Every iteration of solutions 
creates the next drive for continuous improvements.”

The best AI scientists are now hard at work controlling humans

The City of the Future

The remote monitoring, real-time diagnostics and preventive maintenance that are 
becoming part of the U.S. electrical grid will, naturally, bolster those services that 
rely on it. This is particularly true for the rail transport industry, where the hundreds 
of data points per second that can be read off of high-speed rolling stock will be 
leveraged to increase availability and reduce operational costs.

Visibility into real-time operations goes beyond using GPS to glean information about
 the location and health of rolling stock. By predicting component failures of everything
 from gearboxes to train doors, operators will be able to fix faulty parts before they 
ever break down, improving vehicle availability and, as a result, the operational 
planning of stations and overall energy consumption.

The buildings that rely on the grid for power are also becoming more energy 
efficient, and advances enabled by the IoT are making old definitions of a “smart” 
building — like offices that know to lower the heat when people leave for the day — 
seem quaint.

“It goes beyond HVAC to the security, the fire, the lighting, even elevator and shade 
control systems,” says Dave Hopping, president and CEO of Siemens’ North 
American-based Building Technologies Division, who points to the ubiquity of sensors 
as the driver. “They allow the intelligent building management system [IBMS]
 to connect more data on a cloud-based platform like MindSphere. The next step is to
 run analytics on that data to create new applications and operating models for the 
customer.”

On the security front, this could mean always knowing who is on-premises via a 
reader. From an efficiency standpoint, conference rooms and offices can be heated or 
cooled based on their specific usage for the day, while blinds will automatically adjust 
based on the position of the sun.

Efficient energy use and the dollar savings it brings are crucial selling points, 
but Hopping sees MindSphere as just as helpful when it comes to predictive maintenance
“You can use analytics to know how a piece of equipment is running, and know it’s going 
to fail or break before it happens,” he explains. For example, by reading vibrations and 
temperatures of a fan, the building will sense that lubricant is being lost and a bearing 
is wearing out. “We’re hoping that the analytics can get so good that they can tell you, 
‘This piece is going to fail in this 12-hour window 20 days from now,’” Hopping adds. 
“If you have that, nothing is an emergency.”

In a not-too-distant future with augmented reality and artificial intelligence, a building
 technician won’t even have to be inside of it to make a fix: she can be remotely
 located, with the customer interfacing with the broken equipment via a VR headset.

 Such a scenario explains the appeal of smart building applications to customers that 
own real estate across a wide geographic territory. “You don’t have to be in every single 
building to operate, maintain and interface with it,” says Hopping. “Instead, you can 
connect your buildings through a cloud-based application. You cannot do that without 
the Internet of Things.”

At Siemens, this extends to the design portion of the building lifecycle. 
Using building information modelling (BIM), a digital twin of a structure is designed 
first, virtually. This allows all stakeholders to weigh in during planning, preventing
 costly and time-intensive modifications on the construction site, resulting in a 10 
percent budget savings due to error detection, a 7 percent shorter project timeline 
and up to 3.5 percent more efficient occupancy (since modelled buildings often have 
a smaller footprint).

It may seem like the stuff of science fiction, but Hopping is optimistic that building 
analytics in a cloud environment can make it a reality. Perhaps someday soon, the 
next concert hall or college campus — or even an entire city skyline — will truly be a 
smart one.

Download the MindSphere White Paper

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Commentary:

BEWARE...  Lest it controls your mind!!


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